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 Introduction

 

1.1. Introduction

Yazd province is located in the centre of the country, and its center is city of Yazd.
The province has an area of 131,575 km², and according to the most recent divisions of the country, is divided into 11 counties: Maybod, Mehreez, Taft, Ardakan, Behabad, Khatam,Sadogh, Bafq, Abar Kooh, Tabas and Yazd, the capital. Yazd province has a population of over 990,000 of which 75% are estimated as urban residents and 25% resided in rural areas. The city of Yazd is the economic and administrative capital of the province and therefore the most heavily populated.
The population of Yazd is predominantly Persian, most of who are Shi'a Muslims. The city of Yazd’s first mention in historic records predate it back to around 3000 years B.C. when it was related to by the name of Ysatis, and was then part of the domain of Medes, an ancient empire of Iran. Excavations of Gharbal Biz remaining from the Achaemenid period are another example of the antiquity of Yazd.
Atashkadeh (Fire Temple) was turned into a mosque after the Islamic Conquest of Persia, a dignified new fire temple was inaugurated thirteen hundred years later.
The city is located some 175 miles southeast of Isfahan. It has an estimated population of 550,000 people. Because of generations of adaptations to its desert surroundings, Yazd is an architecturally unique city. It is also known in Iran for the high quality of its handicrafts, especially silk weaving, and its sweet shops.
YAZD province central coordination locates in 31.8948°N 54.3570°E. Counties of YAZD province:
1.1. MEYBOD: Meybod is a major desert city in Yazd Province, Iran with a population of about 75,000 making it the second major city in Yazd. It is located at 32 13 N 54 1 E. It is an ancient city that goes back to pre-Islamic arena and, hence, is the home to many ancient points of interests. The Historical City of Maybod is part of the Tentative List in order to qualify for inclusion in the World Heritage List.
It was the capital of Iran during the Mozaffarid period. Mozaffari kingdom originated from Meybod where the first king was born. One of the oldest castles in Iran is Narin ghaleh in Meybod, which dates back from the Sasanid. Chaparkhaneh and Karvansaraye Abbasi are some other examples of the historical buildings from Safavid era.
Many important major poets, sufis, clergymen and politicians came from Meybod. Meybodi, the author of "Kashf-ol-Asrar", Grand Ayatollah Haeri, Hossein Makki and many others lived in Maybod, to name a few.
Unfortunately some of its historical points were demolished by local authorities who did not understand the archeological values. Yet, it hosts many tourists from every corner of the world everyday
Narenj (Narin) Castle is the major historical attraction of Meybod. This building, which in colloquial language is called Narenj Castle, is one of the most important relics of the province dating back to the period before the advent of Islam to Iran, and has been recorded as one of the national buildings. This ancient castle has been constructed on the top of Galeen hill and overlooks the city. It seems that upper floors of the building have been reconstructed and belong to the Islamic era. A section of the building was destroyed in the course of road construction during the reign of Pahlavi II.

1.2. ARDAKAN: Ardakan is the second major city of Yazd province. It was established in the 12th century in the Zardug region. Ardakan is 60 kilometers away from Yazd and it has dry weather and has an estimated population of 70,000.
The word Ardakan in Persian means "holy place" or "clean place" (Modern Persian: ardak+an / Middle Persian: artak+an) and the city has a lot of historical religious attractions such as the Grand Mosque of Ardakan (Masjed-e Jame’), Zire-deh Mosque, Emam-Zadeh Mir Seyyed Mohammad, and Tekyeh Bazar, among others.
The most important shrine is Pir-e Sabz Chek Chek. Other shrines are including Pir Shah Eshtad Izad, Pir Shah Tashtar Izad, Pir Shah Mehr Izad, and Pir Shah Morad.

1.2. Geography and Climate

Yazd with the area of 131,551km² is situated at an oasis where the Dasht-e Kavir desert and the Dasht-e Lut desert meet, the city is sometimes called "the bride of the Kavir" because of its location, in a valley between Shir Kuh, the tallest mountain in the region at 4075 m. above sea level, and Kharaneq. The city itself is located at 1203 m. above sea-level, and covers 16,000 km².
According to the administrative division rules, the Yazd province is divided into 10 districts; each includes at least one town and a number of villages. These districts are: Abarkuh, Ardakan, Bafq, Khatam, Maybod, Mehriz, Tabas, Sadough, Taft and Yazd.
Yazd is the driest major city in Iran, with an average annual rainfall of only 60 millimetres (2.4 in), and also the hottest north of the Persian Gulf coast, with summer temperatures very frequently above 40 °C (104 °F) in blazing sunshine with no humidity. Even at night the temperatures in summer are rather uncomfortable. In the winter, the days remain mild and sunny, but in the morning the thin air and low cloudiness cause very cold temperatures that can sometimes fall well below 0 °C (32 °F).
The Mountains of Yazd locate in southern and Southern West. This mountains are widest than other groups of mountains. The most important mountain in these mountains is Shir Kuh.
Eastern Mountains are located in east of Yazd province and the highest mountains among this mountains are [bon lokht (3002m)] and [bajegan (2879m)].
Northern East Mountains are located east of [Tabas]. This group also includes the mountains Shir Kuh.


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